What is sarcoidosis?
Sarcoidosis is a disease that results from a specific type of inflammation of tissues of the body. It can appear in almost any body organ, but it starts most often in the lungs or lymph nodes.
The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown. The disease can appear suddenly and disappear. Or it can develop gradually and go on to produce symptoms that come and go, sometimes for a lifetime.
As sarcoidosis progresses, microscopic lumps of a specific form of inflammation, called granulomas, appear in the affected tissues. In the majority of cases, these granulomas clear up, either with or without treatment. In the few cases where the granulomas do not heal and disappear, the tissues tend to remain inflamed and become scarred (fibrotic).
What are symptoms of sarcoidosis?
Shortness of breath (dyspnea) and a cough that won’t go away can be among the first symptoms of sarcoidosis. But sarcoidosis can also show up suddenly with the appearance of skin rashes. Red bumps (erythema nodosum) on the face, arms, or shins and inflammation of the eyes are also common symptoms.
Who gets sarcoidosis?
Sarcoidosis was once considered a rare disease. We now know that it is a common chronic illness that appears all over the world. Indeed, it is the most common of the scarring lung disorders and occurs often enough in the United States for Congress to have declared a national Sarcoidosis Awareness Day in 1990.
Anyone can get sarcoidosis. It occurs in all races and in both sexes. Nevertheless, the risk is greater if you are a young black adult, especially a black woman, or of Scandinavian, German, Irish, or Puerto Rican origin. No one knows why.
Because sarcoidosis can escape diagnosis or be mistaken for several other diseases, we can only guess at how many people are affected. The best estimate today is that about five in 100,000 white people in the United States have sarcoidosis. Among black people, it occurs more frequently, in probably 40 out of 100,000 people. Overall, there appear to be 20 cases per 100,000 in cities on the East Coast and somewhat fewer in rural locations. Some scientists, however, believe that these figures greatly underestimated the percentage of the U.S. population with sarcoidosis.
Sarcoidosis mainly affects people between 20 to 40 years of age. White women are just as likely as white men to get sarcoidosis, but the black female gets sarcoidosis two times as often as the black male. No one knows what causes sarcoidosis.
How is sarcoidosis treated?
Because sarcoidosis can disappear even without therapy, even doctors sometimes disagree on when to start the treatment, what dose to prescribe, and how long to continue the medicine. The doctor’s decision depends on the organ system involved and how far the inflammation has progressed. If the disease appears to be severe, especially in the lungs, eyes, heart, nervous system, spleen, or kidneys, the doctor may prescribe corticosteroid.
Corticosteroid treatment usually results in improvement. Symptoms often start up again, however, when it is stopped. Treatment, therefore, may be necessary for several years, sometimes for as long as the disease remains active or to prevent relapse.
Frequent checkups are important so that the doctor can monitor the illness and, if necessary, adjust the treatment.
Corticosteroids, for example, can have side effects: mood swings, swelling, and weight gain because the treatment tends to make the body hold on to water; high blood pressure; high blood sugar; and craving for food. Long-term use can affect the stomach, skin, and bones. This situation can bring on stomach pain, an ulcer, or acne or cause the loss of calcium from bones. However, if the corticosteroid is taken in carefully prescribed low doses, the benefits from the treatment are usually far greater than the problems.
(All information for this page was gathered from the MedicineNet.com site. For more information, click on the link below.